Eine Mehrheitswahl ist ein Repräsentationsprinzip mit dem Ziel, eine. vor 5 Tagen Die Fronten im Konflikt um den Shutdown bleiben verhärtet: Der US-Senat hat sich weder auf den Vorschlag der Republikaner noch der. Aktuelle Nachrichten, Informationen und Bilder zum Thema US-Senat auf trakia-conference.eu
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House Speaker of the Maryland House. House Maryland General Assembly. House Michigan House Michigan Senate. Financial advisor ; Lecturer.
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House Albuquerque City Council. House New York Assembly. Sales manager; Nonprofit organization executive. North Carolina House Speaker.
Teacher; Nonprofit organization executive. Pennsylvania Treasurer Pennsylvania Auditor. Currency trader ; Restaurant owner. House Rhode Island Senate.
House South Carolina House. Nonprofit organization executive ; State Railroad Director. Massachusetts Governor Republican presidential nominee.
Washington Senate Shoreline School Board. House West Virginia House. Wyoming House Wyoming Senate. Daneben war die Vorstellung weit verbreitet, dass der Senat die stabilere, weniger den Schwankungen der politischen Stimmung ausgesetzte Kammer des zweigliedrigen Parlaments sein solle.
Seit dem Ende des Jahrhunderts halten Demokraten und Republikaner vor den Wahlen jeweils Vorwahlen ab, in denen sie sich auf einen Kandidaten einigen, damit sich nicht mehrere eigene Kandidaten gegenseitig Stimmen wegnehmen.
Ein Kandidat kann sich nur in dem Bundesstaat seines Hauptwohnsitzes zur Wahl stellen. Nach dem Sezessionskrieg verabschiedete der Kongress den Lebensjahr vollendet und seinen Hauptwohnsitz in einem der 50 Bundesstaaten hat.
Damit ist der Frauenanteil, nach 23 Frauen in der letzten Legislatur, so hoch wie nie. Jeder Bundesstaat wird im Senat von zwei Personen vertreten.
Dies ist in der Senatsgeschichte bisher 15 Mal passiert. Fall betraf den Senator William Blount , der am 7. Juli wegen Hochverrats aus dem Senat ausgeschlossen wurde.
Wenn das Amt eines US-Senators z. Die Details dieses Verfahrens sind in den Einzelstaaten unterschiedlich ausgestaltet. Bisher siebenmal haben Gouverneure — ohne dazu rechtlich gebunden zu sein — bis zur Wahl eines Nachfolgers die Witwe des gerade verstorbenen Senators ernannt, zuletzt Jean Carnahan Missouri, Eine weitere Witwe, Maurine Brown Neuberger , gewann den Senatssitz ihres verstorbenen Mannes in der Nachwahl, ohne zu dessen Interimsnachfolgerin ernannt worden zu sein.
Der Senat muss jedem amerikanischen Bundesgesetz zustimmen, da es anders als etwa in Deutschland keine Bundesgesetze gibt, die nicht zustimmungspflichtig sind.
Schon der Ausschuss kann den Kandidaten ablehnen, was aber nur sehr selten passiert. Allerdings gelten nicht alle internationalen Abkommen als Vertrag in diesem Sinne.
Bereits wenige Jahre nach seinem Inkrafttreten kam der Er hat kein Stimmrecht , es sei denn, eine Abstimmung endet unentschieden. In diesem Fall ist seine Stimme ausschlaggebend.
Jahrhundert wird er dauerhaft berufen. Der Vorsitzende des Senats bekleidet einen Sitz vor dem Plenum. Seit den er Jahren handelt es sich bei den beiden Parteien um die Demokratische Partei und die Republikanische Partei.
Kongress — verteilt auf drei weitere Parteien bei insgesamt 90 Senatoren. Die Partei mit der Mehrheit der Sitze ist die Mehrheitspartei majority party.
Minority Leader und jeweils einen Majority bzw. Der Vorsitzende hat erheblichen Einfluss auf die Arbeit des Ausschusses. Generally, each party honors the preferences of individual senators, giving priority based on seniority.
Each party is allocated seats on committees in proportion to its overall strength. Most committee work is performed by 16 standing committees, each of which has jurisdiction over a field such as finance or foreign relations.
Each standing committee may consider, amend, and report bills that fall under its jurisdiction. Furthermore, each standing committee considers presidential nominations to offices related to its jurisdiction.
For instance, the Judiciary Committee considers nominees for judgeships, and the Foreign Relations Committee considers nominees for positions in the Department of State.
Committees may block nominees and impede bills from reaching the floor of the Senate. Standing committees also oversee the departments and agencies of the executive branch.
In discharging their duties, standing committees have the power to hold hearings and to subpoena witnesses and evidence. The Senate also has several committees that are not considered standing committees.
Such bodies are generally known as select or special committees ; examples include the Select Committee on Ethics and the Special Committee on Aging.
Legislation is referred to some of these committees, although the bulk of legislative work is performed by the standing committees. Committees may be established on an ad hoc basis for specific purposes; for instance, the Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee created to investigate the Watergate scandal.
Such temporary committees cease to exist after fulfilling their tasks. The Congress includes joint committees, which include members from both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Some joint committees oversee independent government bodies; for instance, the Joint Committee on the Library oversees the Library of Congress. Other joint committees serve to make advisory reports; for example, there exists a Joint Committee on Taxation.
Bills and nominees are not referred to joint committees. Hence, the power of joint committees is considerably lower than those of standing committees.
Each Senate committee and subcommittee is led by a chair usually a member of the majority party. Formerly, committee chairs were determined purely by seniority; as a result, several elderly senators continued to serve as chair despite severe physical infirmity or even senility.
The chairs hold extensive powers: This last role was particularly important in mid-century, when floor amendments were thought not to be collegial.
They also have considerable influence: The Senate rules and customs were reformed in the twentieth century, largely in the s.
Committee chairmen have less power and are generally more moderate and collegial in exercising it, than they were before reform.
Bills may be introduced in either chamber of Congress. Furthermore, the House of Representatives holds that the Senate does not have the power to originate appropriation bills , or bills authorizing the expenditure of federal funds.
However, when the Senate originates an appropriations bill, the House simply refuses to consider it, thereby settling the dispute in practice.
The constitutional provision barring the Senate from introducing revenue bills is based on the practice of the British Parliament , in which only the House of Commons may originate such measures.
Although the Constitution gave the House the power to initiate revenue bills, in practice the Senate is equal to the House in the respect of spending.
As Woodrow Wilson wrote:. The upper house may add to them what it pleases; may go altogether outside of their original provisions and tack to them entirely new features of legislation, altering not only the amounts but even the objects of expenditure, and making out of the materials sent them by the popular chamber measures of an almost totally new character.
The approval of both houses is required for any bill, including a revenue bill, to become law. Both Houses must pass the same version of the bill; if there are differences, they may be resolved by sending amendments back and forth or by a conference committee , which includes members of both bodies.
The Constitution provides several unique functions for the Senate that form its ability to "check and balance" the powers of other elements of the Federal Government.
The president can make certain appointments only with the advice and consent of the Senate. Typically, a nominee is first subject to a hearing before a Senate committee.
Thereafter, the nomination is considered by the full Senate. The majority of nominees are confirmed, but in a small number of cases each year, Senate committees purposely fail to act on a nomination to block it.
In addition, the president sometimes withdraws nominations when they appear unlikely to be confirmed. Because of this, outright rejections of nominees on the Senate floor are infrequent there have been only nine Cabinet nominees rejected outright in United States history.
The powers of the Senate concerning nominations are, however, subject to some constraints. The recess appointment remains valid only temporarily; the office becomes vacant again at the end of the next congressional session.
Nevertheless, presidents have frequently used recess appointments to circumvent the possibility that the Senate may reject the nominee. Furthermore, as the Supreme Court held in Myers v.
Senate passed a legally non-binding resolution against recess appointments. The Senate also has a role in ratifying treaties.
However, not all international agreements are considered treaties under US domestic law, even if they are considered treaties under international law.
Congress has passed laws authorizing the president to conclude executive agreements without action by the Senate. Similarly, the president may make congressional-executive agreements with the approval of a simple majority in each House of Congress, rather than a two-thirds majority in the Senate.
Neither executive agreements nor congressional-executive agreements are mentioned in the Constitution, leading some scholars such as Laurence Tribe and John Yoo  to suggest that they unconstitutionally circumvent the treaty-ratification process.
However, courts have upheld the validity of such agreements. The Constitution empowers the House of Representatives to impeach federal officials for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors" and empowers the Senate to try such impeachments.
During an impeachment trial, senators are constitutionally required to sit on oath or affirmation. Conviction requires a two-thirds majority of the senators present.
A convicted official is automatically removed from office; in addition, the Senate may stipulate that the defendant be banned from holding office.
No further punishment is permitted during the impeachment proceedings; however, the party may face criminal penalties in a normal court of law.
The House of Representatives has impeached sixteen officials, of whom seven were convicted. One resigned before the Senate could complete the trial.
Andrew Johnson in and Bill Clinton in Under the Twelfth Amendment , the Senate has the power to elect the vice president if no vice presidential candidate receives a majority of votes in the Electoral College.
The Twelfth Amendment requires the Senate to choose from the two candidates with the highest numbers of electoral votes.
Electoral College deadlocks are rare. The Senate has only broken a deadlock once; in , it elected Richard Mentor Johnson. The House elects the president if the Electoral College deadlocks on that choice.
The following are published by the Senate Historical Office. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Seal of the U. President of the Senate. Mike Pence R since January 20, Chuck Grassley R since January 3, President pro tempore emeritus.
Patrick Leahy D since January 3, Mitch McConnell R since January 3, Chuck Schumer D since January 3, John Thune R since January 3, Dick Durbin D since January 3, History of the United States Senate.
Current members of the United States Senate. Current members by seniority by class. Party leadership of the United States Senate. Executive session Morning business.
Quorum Quorum call Salaries. Saxbe fix Seal Holds. Senatorial courtesy Standing Rules. Senate office buildings Dirksen Hart Russell.
List of United States Senate elections. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections.
Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Seniority in the United States Senate. Clay pigeon floor procedure. Closed sessions of the United States Senate.
United States congressional committee. Retrieved October 4, The Yale Law Journal. Berke September 12, The New York Times. Friedman March 30, A Reappraisal of the Seventeenth Amendment, —".
Agenda Content and Senate Partisanship, ". Article 1, Section 1 ". Retrieved March 22, Notes of the Secret Debates of the Federal Convention of Archived from the original on November 23, Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved September 17, Retrieved November 17, United States Printing Office.
Retrieved November 13, Archived PDF from the original on June 5, Retrieved October 13, Massachusetts Great and General Court. Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved October 2, Retrieved June 19, Retrieved 8 November Retrieved July 11, Retrieved November 10, Retrieved February 8, Gold, Senate Procedure and Practice , p.
Every member, when he speaks, shall address the chair, standing in his place, and when he has finished, shall sit down. Lazing on a Senate afternoon".
Voting in the Senate". Retrieved April 11, Zelizer, On Capitol Hill describes this process; one of the reforms is that seniority within the majority party can now be bypassed, so that chairs do run the risk of being deposed by their colleagues.
See in particular p. Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved January 1, The Invention of the United States Senate , p.
A Study in American Politics , pp.