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Präsident us

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Liste aller 45 Präsidenten der USA: Von George Washington bis Donald Trump. Hier finden Sie alle amerikanischen Präsidenten aufgelistet. Der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (englisch amtlich President of the United States of America, .. Präsident. Donald Trump folgt auf drei Präsidenten, die jeweils zwei volle Amtszeiten das Amt des Präsidenten bekleideten. Donald Trump wurde zum US-Präsidenten gewählt. Welche Präsidenten vor ihm in der Regierungsresidenz in Washington gelebt haben. Welche das. Falls du noch Fragen hast, schreib sie einfach in die Kommentare! Früher war das anders: Mehrere europäische Staaten hatten Maduro zuletzt ein Ultimatum gestellt. Obwohl vom Kongress im Prinzip unabhängig und mit einigem lukas podolski gehalt Spielraum ausgestattet, ist bally wulff royal casino Präsident trotzdem in der Regel um die Unterstützung des Kongresses bemüht, da dieser als michael phelps ernährung Teil der Legislative Gesetzesvorhaben online casino bernie Regierung mittragen und u. Verlobung nach 14 Jahren Tipp: Das köpfige Wahlmännerkollegium tritt als solches also nie zusammen. Diese Zahl entspricht der Gesamtzahl der Abgeordneten im Repräsentantenhaus und im Senat sowie dreier Wahlmänner für den sonst im Kongress nicht vertretenen Regierungsbezirk Washington, D. President informell His Excellency in lukas podolski gehalt Schriftverkehr. Real gutscheincode 2019 werden von den einzelnen Bundesstaaten geschickt. Allerdings casino miami der erste Präsident, George Washingtonauf eine dritte Amtszeit verzichtet, was von fast allen seinen Nachfolgern als Tradition beibehalten wurde. Nach Ende der Auszählung verkündet dieser, wer zum Präsidenten und zum Vizepräsidenten gewählt worden ist. Der amerikanische Präsident wird in zwei Schritten gewählt. In Washington wird nur mehr Symbolpolitik betrieben.

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Diese Aufgabe kommt dem Präsidenten des Senats, also dem noch amtierenden Vizepräsidenten, zu. Ein Jahr vor der Wahl geht der Wahlkampf innerhalb der Partei richtig los. Der Versuch der Amerikaner, in Kanada einzumarschieren und die britische Kolonie zu erobern, scheiterte kläglich. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Auch dieser Kandidat wird in der Regel vom Parteitag bestätigt. Befugnisse und Grenzen der Macht. Vielleicht wegen dieser Erfahrung trieb Franklin D. Obwohl seine Präsidentschaft in eine Zeit der ideologischen Polarisierung im Kalten Krieg fiel, agierte Eisenhower in vielem erstaunlich differenziert und weitsichtig. November 22, — January 20, Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination Ableism affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights Islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health betway casino free spins no deposit hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state. Zachary Taylor — Lived: Noel CanningU. United States Department of Defense. Other presidential traditions are paypal bankkonto verifizieren with American holidays. White House Military Cool games kostenlos. Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force inthere were no parties. Millard Fillmore — Lived: United States presidential primaryUnited States presidential nominating conventionUnited States presidential election debatesand United States presidential election. Beide müssen unabhängig voneinander für einen Einsatz stimmen, jeder der beiden hat also ein Vetorecht. Diese Wahl findet einen Monat später im Electoral Collage statt. Die Vorwahlen sollten lediglich ein Meinungsbild liefern, welcher Kandidat wohl die besten Chancen hat. Da es unterschiedliche Ansichten über die Grenzen Asiens zu Europa einerseits und zu Australien andererseits gibt, kommen mindestens neun Berge in Frage. Die Präsidentschaftswahl ist nur eine indirekte Wahl, bei der jeder Staat seine Wahlmänner für das Wahlmännerkollegium bestimmt. Da die Wahlmänner von den Parteien entsandt werden und verschiedene Staaten Gesetze zur Bestrafung von abweichend abstimmenden Wahlmännern haben, wird in der Regel geschlossen für den jeweiligen Wahlvorschlag gestimmt. Die Frage, mit welchen protokollarischen Ehren und Titeln der Präsident zu bedenken sei, war eine der ersten Fragen, die den ersten Kongress im Frühjahr und Sommer beschäftigten. Ziel jeder Partei ist es, eine möglichst breite Volksgruppe hinter eine einzige Person zu bringen und so jede Spaltung der Wähler zu vermeiden. Roosevelt vorbehielt, den Vizepräsidentschaftskandidaten selbst auszuwählen. Kontrovers war die Begnadigung , die er Nixon für jegliches im Amt möglicherweise begangene Vergehen erteilte. Die Zuteilung der Delegierten erfolgt bei den Demokraten im Wesentlichen proportional zum Wahlergebnis. Innerhalb der US-amerikanischen Exekutive hat der Präsident weitreichende Befugnisse, nationale Angelegenheiten und die Arbeit der Bundesregierung zu überwachen.

Präsident us - are

Tatsächliche innenpolitische Erfolge konnten allerdings nicht erzielt werden. Bis zur Wahl von George Bush sollte er für lange Zeit der vorerst letzte Präsident bleiben, der aus dem Amt des Vizepräsidenten heraus zum amerikanischen Staatsoberhaupt gewählt wurde. Kennedy ihr Gehalt gespendet. Lincoln wurde von einem Attentäter erschossen. Bei der Entscheidung, wer zum Präsidenten und zum Vizepräsidenten gewählt ist, zählt jedoch nicht, wer bundesweit die meisten Wählerstimmen erhalten hat. Die zuvor als informelles Prinzip geltende Beschränkung wurde erst mit einer Verfassungsänderung im Jahre formales Gesetz. Kontrovers war die Begnadigung , die er Nixon für jegliches im Amt möglicherweise begangene Vergehen erteilte.

But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M. Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.

The prosecutor charged that Mr. Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.

Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.

In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds [] and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.

Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege. Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.

But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.

Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, Legal experts discuss the implications.

Boy Scouts of America. The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.

The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet. But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.

Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.

Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.

Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch". Ginsberg and Crenson unite".

Retrieved September 21, The Executive Branch, Annenberg Classroom". The National Constitution Center. Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment".

Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved June 12, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The Annenberg Public Policy Center.

CRS Report for Congress. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 1, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.

Retrieved July 27, Retrieved February 20, From George Washington to George W. Bush 2nd revised ed.

Office of the Historian, U. Retrieved July 24, Constitution of the United States of America: Retrieved August 3, A quick history of the presidential oath".

Heritage Guide to the Constitution. Before and After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment". Fordham University School of Law. Retrieved December 13, The American Presidency Project [online].

University of California hosted. Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts". Retrieved January 2, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved July 31, Dollar Amount, to Present".

Archived from the original on December 14, White House Military Office. Retrieved June 17, Air Force aircraft carrying the president will use the call sign "Air Force One.

Secret Service to unveil new presidential limo". Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved December 16, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 18, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved January 10, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on August 23, United States Secret Service.

Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved March 11, Retrieved April 3, Balogh, Brian and Bruce J. Recapturing the Oval Office: Bumiller, Elisabeth January The Complete Book of Presidential Trivia.

A Reference History 3rd ed. Rating the Best and the Worst in the White House. University of Helsinki, Primary sources Waldman, Michael — Stephanopoulos, George.

Interview with Joseph G. Peschek and William Grover, authors of The Unsustainable Presidency , a book offering an analysis of the role the US President plays in economics and politics.

President of the United States. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A. Garfield Chester A.

Roosevelt — Harry S. Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B. Bush — Bill Clinton — George W. Bush — Barack Obama — Donald Trump —present.

Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. Book Category List Portal. List of Presidents List of Vice Presidents.

Acting President Designated survivor Line of succession. Electoral College margin Popular vote margin Summary Winner lost popular vote.

Senate vice presidential bust collection. Presidents actors Vice Presidents actors Candidates Line of succession.

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Results Summary Elections in which the winner lost the popular vote Electoral College margins Electoral College results by state Electoral vote changes between elections Electoral vote recipients Popular vote margins Contingent election Faithless elector Unpledged elector Voter turnout.

Campaign slogans Historical election polling Election Day Major party tickets Major party losers Presidential debates October surprise Red states and blue states Swing state Election recount.

House elections Senate elections Gubernatorial elections. United States Armed Forces. Committees on Armed Services: Department of Defense Secretary: Current deployments Conflicts Wars Timeline History: A MC Service academies: Individual weapons Crew-served weapons Vehicles active.

Nuclear football Electronics designations Flags: Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court. Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination Ableism affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights Islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state.

Heads of state and government of North America. Retrieved from " https: Pages using Timeline CS1: Views Read View source View history. This page was last edited on 1 February , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President. President [1] [2] informal The Honorable [3] formal His Excellency [4] [5] [6] diplomatic.

Head of State Head of Government. Political parties or self-nomination. Four years, renewable once. With the agreement of the United States Senate he or she can:.

Abraham Lincoln , James A. Kennedy were assassinated while in office. Harding , and Franklin Roosevelt died from illness while president.

Nixon is the only president to have resigned. At all times, the president is protected by Secret Service agents. Sometimes, the president may travel to Camp David for either relaxation or to do some work in peace.

Roosevelt , Harry S. Truman , Dwight D. Eisenhower , John F. Kennedy , Ronald Reagan , George H. Bush , and Bill Clinton are ranked high on polls.

On the other hand; James Buchanan , Warren G. Harding , Herbert Hoover , Lyndon B. Bush are thought to be the worst.

Since Herbert Hoover , each president has created a institutional place known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records and other documents and materials.

There are currently thirteen presidential libraries in the NARA system. There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois.

Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president such as Richard Nixon at his library in Yorba Linda, California and Ronald Reagan at his library in Simi Valley, California.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President.

President [1] [2] The Honorable [3]. Martin Van Buren March 4, — March 4, Martin Van Buren — Lived: March 4, — April 4, Died in office. William Henry Harrison — Lived: United States Minister to Colombia — John Tyler Succeeded to presidency.

April 4, [i] — March 4, John Tyler — Lived: Whig April 4, — September 13, Unaffiliated September 13, — March 4, [j].

March 4, — July 9, Died in office. Zachary Taylor — Lived: Millard Fillmore Succeeded to presidency. July 9, [k] — March 4, Millard Fillmore — Lived: Franklin Pierce — Lived: King March 4 — April 18, Died in office.

James Buchanan — Lived: March 4, — April 15, Died in office. Abraham Lincoln — Lived: Republican National Union [l].

Hannibal Hamlin March 4, — March 4, Andrew Johnson March 4 — April 15, Succeeded to presidency. April 15, — March 4, Andrew Johnson — Lived: National Union April 15, — c.

Commanding General of the U. Army — No prior elected office. Schuyler Colfax March 4, — March 4, Henry Wilson March 4, — November 22, Died in office.

March 4, — September 19, Died in office. Arthur Succeeded to presidency. September 19, [n] — March 4, Grover Cleveland — Lived: Hendricks March 4 — November 25, Died in office.

Benjamin Harrison — Lived: Senator Class 1 from Indiana — March 4, — September 14, Died in office. William McKinley — Lived: Garret Hobart March 4, — November 21, Died in office.

Theodore Roosevelt March 4 — September 14, Succeeded to presidency. September 14, — March 4, Theodore Roosevelt — Lived: Office vacant September 14, — March 4, Fairbanks March 4, — March 4, William Howard Taft — Lived: Sherman March 4, — October 30, Died in office.

Woodrow Wilson — Lived: March 4, — August 2, Died in office. Senator Class 3 from Ohio — Calvin Coolidge Succeeded to presidency.

August 2, [o] — March 4, Calvin Coolidge — Lived: Office vacant August 2, — March 4, Dawes March 4, — March 4, Herbert Hoover — Lived: March 4, — April 12, Died in office.

Garner March 4, — January 20, [p]. Wallace January 20, — January 20, Truman January 20 — April 12, Succeeded to presidency. April 12, — January 20, Office vacant April 12, — January 20, Barkley January 20, — January 20, January 20, — January 20, Supreme Allied Commander Europe — No prior elected office.

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Es handelt sich um Spam. Ohne diese Unterstützung ist der Handlungsspielraum des Präsidenten stark eingeschränkt. Jahrhundert dominieren die Demokraten und Republikaner. Wir empfehlen unseren kostenlosen t-online. Der Quarterback wurde nach seinem Abschied bei den San Francisco 49ers von keinem Team mehr unter Vertrag genommen. So help me God. Die nationale Partei legt u.

Präsident Us Video

Die Macht des US-Präsidenten - heuteplus - ZDF Amtierender Präsident Donald Trump seit dem Beim ersten solchen Fall schuf John Tyler den Präzedenzfall, dass er sich als Präsident sah und die Bezeichnung acting president kommissarischer Präsident ablehnte. Es ist geant casino gosier catalogue aus insgesamt Personen, die Wahlmänner genannt werden. Der Jurist will vorerst nicht vor dem Kongress auftreten. T--online login Befugnis lask linz Ernennung der sonstigen Bundesbeamten ist vom Kongress mit Ausnahme der wichtigsten Positionen weiterdelegiert worden. Der Präsident ist auch der Regierungschef der Vereinigten Staaten:

Unaffiliated September 13, — March 4, [j]. March 4, — July 9, Died in office. Zachary Taylor — Lived: Millard Fillmore Succeeded to presidency.

July 9, [k] — March 4, Millard Fillmore — Lived: Franklin Pierce — Lived: King March 4 — April 18, Died in office. James Buchanan — Lived: March 4, — April 15, Died in office.

Abraham Lincoln — Lived: Republican National Union [l]. Hannibal Hamlin March 4, — March 4, Andrew Johnson March 4 — April 15, Succeeded to presidency.

April 15, — March 4, Andrew Johnson — Lived: National Union April 15, — c. Commanding General of the U.

Army — No prior elected office. Schuyler Colfax March 4, — March 4, Henry Wilson March 4, — November 22, Died in office. March 4, — September 19, Died in office.

Arthur Succeeded to presidency. September 19, [n] — March 4, Grover Cleveland — Lived: Hendricks March 4 — November 25, Died in office.

Benjamin Harrison — Lived: Senator Class 1 from Indiana — March 4, — September 14, Died in office. William McKinley — Lived: Garret Hobart March 4, — November 21, Died in office.

Theodore Roosevelt March 4 — September 14, Succeeded to presidency. September 14, — March 4, Theodore Roosevelt — Lived: Office vacant September 14, — March 4, Fairbanks March 4, — March 4, William Howard Taft — Lived: Sherman March 4, — October 30, Died in office.

Woodrow Wilson — Lived: March 4, — August 2, Died in office. Senator Class 3 from Ohio — Calvin Coolidge Succeeded to presidency. August 2, [o] — March 4, Calvin Coolidge — Lived: Office vacant August 2, — March 4, Dawes March 4, — March 4, Herbert Hoover — Lived: March 4, — April 12, Died in office.

Garner March 4, — January 20, [p]. Wallace January 20, — January 20, Truman January 20 — April 12, Succeeded to presidency. April 12, — January 20, Office vacant April 12, — January 20, Barkley January 20, — January 20, January 20, — January 20, Supreme Allied Commander Europe — No prior elected office.

January 20, — November 22, Died in office. Kennedy — Lived: Senator Class 1 from Massachusetts — Johnson Succeeded to presidency.

November 22, — January 20, Office vacant November 22, — January 20, Hubert Humphrey January 20, — January 20, January 20, — August 9, Resigned from office.

Richard Nixon — Lived: In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president.

He assumed office on January 20, In July , during the American Revolutionary War , the Thirteen Colonies , acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress , declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states , no longer under British rule.

There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government.

Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, , the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator.

Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of President of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn. For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization. Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays.

Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [71] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency.

To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner. Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term. In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. The president must be given the oath of office by the Chief Justice of the United States.

It is traditionally held at the United States Capitol. With the agreement of the United States Senate he or she can:.

Abraham Lincoln , James A. Kennedy were assassinated while in office. Harding , and Franklin Roosevelt died from illness while president. Nixon is the only president to have resigned.

At all times, the president is protected by Secret Service agents. Sometimes, the president may travel to Camp David for either relaxation or to do some work in peace.

Roosevelt , Harry S. Truman , Dwight D. Eisenhower , John F. Kennedy , Ronald Reagan , George H. Bush , and Bill Clinton are ranked high on polls.

On the other hand; James Buchanan , Warren G. Harding , Herbert Hoover , Lyndon B. Bush are thought to be the worst. Since Herbert Hoover , each president has created a institutional place known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records and other documents and materials.

There are currently thirteen presidential libraries in the NARA system. There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois.

Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president such as Richard Nixon at his library in Yorba Linda, California and Ronald Reagan at his library in Simi Valley, California.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Executive branch of the U.

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