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trakia-conference.eu: Ihr Wörterbuch im Internet für Portugiesisch-Deutsch. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'doch' in LEOs English ⇔ German Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. trakia-conference.eu: Ihr Wörterbuch im Internet für Spanisch-Deutsch. Orthographically similar words transactortranslatory. Meciuri liga 1 azi - das Deutsch. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Bringen Sie ihn doch nicht in Verlegenheit! Um Vokabeln speichern und später lernen zu können, müssen Sie angemeldet sein.

Corporate users and research institutions are however required to purchase a licence. The website hosts eight free German language based bilingual dictionaries and forums for additional language queries.

The dictionaries are characterized by providing translations in forms of hyperlinks to further dictionary queries, thereby facilitating back translations.

The dictionaries are partly added to and corrected by large vocabulary donations of individuals or companies, partly through suggestions and discussions on the LEO language forums.

These employees oversee the above-mentioned donations and suggestions before integrating them in the dictionary. Thus an entry can never be simply made by a registered user.

These registered users, on the other hand, have the possibility to communicate in the eight different forums where native German speakers and the other native speakers collaborate alike, providing help with finding idiomatic equivalents for phrases or texts etc.

The English - German dictionary run by Leo since contains around , entries and receives an average of 11 million queries per weekday.

This one gets about 2. A Spanish —German dictionary with about , entries was introduced on 3 April It gets about 2 million queries each weekday.

An Italian -German was started on 3 April At the time of the public launch, the dictionary contained about , entries and received 77, queries on the first day.

The Chinese —German dictionary was started on the same date as the Italian—German dictionary, 3 April Queries can be entered by using Pinyin , or traditional or simplified characters.

Due to text encoding limitations, the Chinese dictionary cannot be used in the interface. The new dictionary became publicly available on 12 April after a couple of testing days.

It started with 77, entries and received 38, queries on 13 April As the dictionary only went online in the evening it only received 3, queries on its first day.

Today it contains about , entries and receives an average of , queries each weekday. Schlesinger agreed upon a higher degree of standardization in main battle tanks being favourable to NATO.

By integrating components already fully developed by German companies for the Leopard 2, the costs of the XM1 Abrams , U.

As a result, the modification of the Leopard 2 prototypes in order to meet the US Army requirements was investigated. Following a number of further talks, a memorandum of understanding MOU was signed on 11 December between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America , which declared that a modified version of the Leopard 2 should be trialled by the USA against their XM1 prototypes, [18] after the Americans had bought and investigated prototype PT07 in The Leopard 2AV austere version was based on the experiences of the previous Leopard 2 development.

It was created in order to meet the US requirements and the latest protection requirements of the German MoD. Due to the design and production of the Leopard 2AV taking more time than expected, the shipment to the US and the US evaluation was delayed.

It was not possible to test the Leopard 2AV before 1 September Two new prototype hulls and three turrets were shipped to the US: FMC, after having acquired the licences for production of the Leopard 2AV, decided not to submit a technical proposal, as they saw little to no chance in the US Army adopting a vehicle not developed in the USA.

According to American literature it was discovered, that the Leopard 2AV prototype used for mobility trials was underweight.

In Germany the test conditions were criticised for being unrealistic and favouring the XM1. Instead of using actual performance data, the calculated hypothetical acceleration was used.

The ballistic protection of turret and hull was improved and weak spots were eliminated. The turret bustle containing the ready ammunition racks and the hydraulic systems was separated from the crew compartment and fitted with blow-out panels.

The development of several new components introduced to the Leopard 2 during the Leopard 2AV development and after the US testing was completed.

The EMES system was considered to be the superior solution, but the Hughes system was cheaper and fully developed. The German company Krupp-Atlas-Elektronik acquired the licence of the Hughes design and modified it to meet the needs of the German army.

However driving tests at the WTD 41 revealed a number of drawbacks such as high fuel consumption and the lacking performance of the transmission including the brakes.

In January Germany ordered a small pre-series of three hulls and two turrets which were delivered in These vehicles had increased armour protection on the front of the hull.

One of the hulls was fitted with the earlier turret T21 and was used by the German army school in Munster for troop trials until The first batch consisted of tanks.

The delivery of six tanks was scheduled for , for , for and tanks each following year. The first series tank was delivered on 25 October By the first batch of Leopard 2 tanks was completed.

The first production tanks were fitted with the PzB image intensifier due to production shortages of the new thermal night-sight system, which was later retrofitted to the earlier models.

After the original five batches, three further batches of Leopard 2 tanks were ordered, increasing the amount of Leopard 2 tanks ordered by Germany to a total of 2, The seventh batch of tanks was produced between May and April The last batch for the German army totalling 75 tanks was produced from January to March While previous models only varied in detail, the Leopard 2A4 introduced a digital ballistic computer and an improved fire extinguishing system.

Starting within the sixth batch tanks were fitted with an improved armour array and new side skirts. In the German military procurement agency stated a number of requirements for a future Leopard 2 upgrade.

In , the Kampfwertsteigerung combat potential increasement programme was initiated in Germany with the delivery of first prototypes. The official military requirements were published in March The base armour of the tank was exchanged and additional armour modules were installed at the turret.

A first batch of Leopard 2 tanks was upgraded to Leopard 2A5 configuration between and , a second batch of followed to In it was decided to cancel due to changes in the political environment.

The funds were redirected to the NGP project of the German army. The Leopard 2A6M was developed with an enhanced mine-protection kit providing protection against mines that can detonate below the hull like mines with bending wire trigger and EFP mines.

The latest version of the tank is the Leopard 2A7, which entered service in a small initial batch of 20 tanks in In April , Welt am Sonntag claimed that tungsten wolfram rounds used in Leopard 2 cannot penetrate the Russian T, nor the modernized version of T They also stated that the German military will develop a new improved round, but it will be exclusively developed for the Leopard 2A7.

Marketing for the new gun was slated to begin in The Leopard 2 first entered service in , and its service life is anticipated to end around In May , the German Ministry of Defence announced plans to develop a tank jointly with France as a successor to both the Leopard 2 and Leclerc tanks.

Technologies and concepts will be investigated to determine what capabilities are needed in a future tank. Germany has fielded about 2, Leopard 2 main battle tanks in various versions, but most of the tanks were sold following the German reunification.

Other countries bought newly or locally built tanks. The Swiss decision was made on 24 August and the funding was subsequently approved by the government in The Leopard 2 became very popular in the s, when the shrinking German army offered many of its redundant Leopard 2s at a reduced price.

But with further non-European orders, the name " Global-Leopard " is now used instead. After investigating the option of a locally developed replacement for the Strv tank, Sweden decided to buy a foreign tank model.

Sweden contracted on 20 June the production of Stridsvagn Swedish Leopard 2A5 subvariant with many components being made locally.

The first Stridsvagn was delivered on 19 December Sweden also leased and later bought a total of Leopard 2A4 tanks in and ; the first vehicle was delivered in February Denmark bought 51 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks after the Danish military school, the Haerens Kampskole , recommended to base the adoption of a new tank on the Swedish army trials.

The tanks were delivered in , but the upgrade to Leopard 2A5 level was already decided. In the Danish army bought another 18 ex-German Leopard 2 tanks.

In , Greece held a competition to determine the main battle tank for the Hellenic army. In March Greece ordered Leopard 2 tanks of which were locally assembled.

Poland received Leopard 2A4 tanks from German army stocks in In Poland ordered a further ex-German Leopard 2s. Finland bought used Leopard 2A4 tanks and six armoured bridge-layer Leopard 2L tanks from Germany in and The tanks served as replacement for the old Soviet-made T and TM1.

The Netherlands resold of their tanks and one turret to Austria , 80 to Canada in , [50] another 52 tanks to Norway , 37 to Portugal and finally to Finland.

In , Turkey ordered Leopard 2 tanks from German army stocks. Turkey already wanted to buy 1, Leopard 2 tanks in , but the German government rejected such deal.

Singapore bought 96 Leopard 2 tanks from Germany in Qatar ordered 62 Leopard 2A7 tanks and 24 Panzerhaubitze s in [55] The delivery of the tanks started in late and the first tanks were displayed on a military parade on 18 December Saudi Arabia has shown interest in buying the Leopard 2 since the s.

However, due to the political circumstances and the questionable situation of human rights in Saudi Arabia , no deal was made. Saudi Arabia renewed its intention of buying Leopard 2 tanks in The Leopard 2 was also tested by the United Kingdom.

In the Leopard 2 was evaluated as possible replacement for the Challenger 1 tank. More modern versions of the Leopard 2 or M1 Abrams, such as the Leopard 2A6 were not considered due to their higher price.

The vehicles of Panzerbataillon 33 and , were sent from Macedonia to Prizren. They were used for patrols, protecting checkpoints and bases as well as part of the show of force.

On 13 June , two members of the Serbian paramilitary started firing from inside a Lada car at one of the checkpoints in Prizren.

A Leopard 2A5 was located at the checkpoint, but it could not participate in the fighting as it was only partially crewed. The tanks served to protect Bundeswehr logistic sites in Macedonia.

Until their return in the Leopard 2 tanks were stationed at the Austrian-Swiss camp "Casablanca". The Dutch contingent in Bosnia-Hercegovina operated Leopard 2 tanks.

However, operational experience in Afghanistan , and in particular during Operation Medusa , convinced the Canadian military of the usefulness of maintaining a tank fleet.

The Canadian government decided to borrow 20 Leopard 2A6s and three armoured recovery vehicles from Germany for rapid deployment to Afghanistan.

It worked as it should. The Danish tank unit, drawn from the first battalion of the Jydske Dragonregiment Jutland Dragoons Regiment , [71] was equipped with three tanks and one M armoured personnel carrier , with an armoured recovery vehicle and another tank kept in reserve.

In January , Danish tanks halted a flanking manoeuvre by Taliban forces near the Helmand River by providing gunfire in support of Danish and British infantry from elevated positions.

No one was injured and the tank returned to camp on its own for repairs. Three members of the four-man crew were able to escape even though wounded, but the driver was stuck inside.

On site treatment by Danish medics could not save him. During the same contact with Taliban forces, a second tank was caught in an explosion but none of the crew were wounded.

Turkey operates Leopard 2A4 tanks. Some of the 10 were damaged by IEDs, while the rest were damaged by anti-tank weapons. Turkey also confirmed the use of Leopard 2A4 tanks during the Turkish military operation in Afrin to the German government.

The Leopard 2 uses spaced multilayer armour throughout the design. The armour is a result of extensive research about the formation and penetration mechanism of shaped charge jets.

The side and the rear of the tank protect against heavy machine guns, medium caliber rounds and older types of tank ammunition.

The side of the hull is covered by armour skirts to increase protection against projectiles and RPGs. The frontal third of the hull sides is covered by heavy ballistic skirts, while the rest of the hull sides is covered by steel-reinforced rubber skirts.

In case of a detonation, the blow-off panels on the compartment roofs will direct the explosion and fire away from the crew. They are mounted on most Leopard 2 models, with the exception of Dutch Leopard 2s, which are equipped instead with a Dutch-designed smoke mortar system with six barrels on each side.

The Leopard 2 is equipped with a fire protection system. A modified version of spaced multilayer armour was introduced beginning with the 97th vehicle of the 6th production batch.

The Leopard 2A5 upgrade focused on increased armour protection. While upgrading a Leopard 2 tank to the Leopard 2A5 configuration, the roof covering the armour modules is cut open and new armour modules are inserted.

They have a distinctive arrowhead shape and improve the protection against both kinetic penetrators and shaped charges.

The Leopard 2A7 features the latest generation of passive armour and belly armour providing protection against mines and IEDs.

For urban combat, the Leopard 2 can be fitted with different packages of modular armour. Additional armour packages have been developed by a number of different companies.

This upgrade was first presented on the IAV The Leopard 2A4M and 2A6M add an additional mine protection plate for the belly, which increases protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.

The barrel has a chrome lining to increase barrel life. The Leopard 2 is equipped with two machine guns, one mounted co-axially, the other on an anti-aircraft mount.

The standard fire control system found on the Leopard 2 is the German EMES 15 fire control system with a dual magnification stabilised primary sight.

The primary sight has an integrated neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet Nd: The fire control suite is capable of providing up to three range values in four seconds.

The range data is transmitted to the fire control computer and is used to calculate the firing solution. The Leopard 2 has a torsion bar suspension , and has advanced friction dampers.

The running gear consists of seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels and four return rollers per side, with the idler wheel at the front and drive sprocket at the rear.

It can climb vertical obstacles over one metre high. The German Army has prioritised mobility in its Leopard 2, which might be the fastest main battle tank in the world.

The baseline Leopard 2, sometimes informally called the "A0" to differentiate it from later versions, was the first series manufactured version.

The vehicles were manufactured from October until March , altogether vehicles. Two chassis served as driver training vehicles. Deliveries of the 2A1 models started in March and ended in November The two most notable changes were the modification of the ammunition racks to be identical to those in the M1 Abrams, and redesigned fuel filters that reduced refuelling time.

This batch included more minor changes that were later retrofitted to the earlier 2A1s. This designation was given to upgraded vehicles of the first batch of Leopard 2s, brought up to the standard of the second and third batches.

This modernisation gradually replaced the original PZB sights in the first batch with thermal sights for the EMES 15 as they became available.

Furthermore, the upgrade included the fitting of filler openings and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large coverplate to protect the existing NBC protection system.

Finally, the tank was given new five metre towing cables with a different position. The programme began in and ended in ; the third, fourth and fifth batches, which were produced during this period, had the same features.

The modernised first batch can be recognised by the circular plate covering the hole where the cross-wind sensor for the fire-control system was removed.

The fourth batch of vehicles; by Krauss-Maffei Chassis Nr. Even with these minor changes the new batch was known as the 2A3.

The Leopard 2s were manufactured in eight batches between and All the older models were upgraded to 2A4 standard.

Until , Germany operated a total of 2, 2A4s newly built and the rest modified older versions , while the Netherlands had an additional tanks.

This version included Swiss-built 7. Switzerland operated Pz 87 tanks. After , Germany and the Netherlands found themselves with large stocks of tanks that they had no need for after the Cold War.

These tanks were sold to NATO or friendly armies around the world. Among these buyers of the surplus tanks were Turkey purchasing vehicles , Greece , Sweden , Chile , Finland , Poland , Austria , Spain , Canada , Singapore 96 , Norway 52 , Denmark 51 , and Portugal The turret roof armour is improved and the smoke grenade launchers redesigned.

Further improvements enhance survivability and combat capability, such as a turret electric drive similar to the Leopard 2A5, a driver rear-view camera, an independent weapons station for the loader, and enhanced command and control systems.

A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilised Mg 64 0. The first 20 were delivered in October ; of which just five were deployed to Afghanistan at the end of and operated until July , when combat operations stopped.

The Leopard 2NG Next Generation is a privately funded Turkish upgrade by Aselsan that includes the application of modular composite armour AMAP , upgraded optics, completely overhauled turret mechanics and a new fire control system on the work since and to be delivered by late , which is intended to be used on the new Altay MBT.

It was developed without an order of the Turkish Army, but might meet the requirements for the modernization of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s.

However, in Finland purchased 2A6 vehicles from the Netherlands. The Leopard 2 hull was also used for the Vickers Mk 7 main battle tank, which featured a British-designed turret, where some of the innovations later were incorporated into the Challenger 2 design.

The Leopard 2 chassis is also larger, thus providing a more stable firing platform for the Marksman turret to operate from.

These spaced armour modules defeat a hollow charge prior to reaching the base armour, and causes kinetic-energy penetrators to change direction, eroding them in the process; it does not form a shot-trap , since it does not deflect the penetrators outwards to hit the hull or turret ring.

The gun mantlet was redesigned to accept the new armour. The Leopard 2 Imp was then developed into the A5. There were also some improvements in the main armour composition.

The interior received spall liners to reduce fragments if the armour is penetrated. The frontal "heavy" third of the side skirts was replaced with a stronger type.

Turret controls went all-electric, increasing reliability and crew safety, as well as weight savings. The first A5s were handed over to the German army tank school in and started to enter regular service with Panzerbataillon 33 in December the same year.

The Stridsvagn is a Swedish Army tank based on the Leopard 2 Improved, with units built, 91 of which were licence-produced in Sweden. The tank features increased armour on the turret top and front hull, and improved command, control and fire control systems.

Externally, it can be distinguished from the Leopard 2A5 by the French GALIX smoke dispensers, different storage bins, and the much thicker crew hatches.

Results showed that the gun had high penetration values, and had a muzzle velocity of around metres a second, with potential to be increased further.

The crew was protected by an armoured capsule and ballistic protection for the hull was to be improved; planned protection level of the KWS III upgrade was to be equal to or better than the Leopard 2A5.

All German tank battalions of the "crisis intervention forces" are equipped with the A6. Canada purchased 20 Leopard 2A6s from the Netherlands.

These were delivered in In January , Finland purchased L2A6s, as well as munitions, simulators, and a ten-year supply of reserve parts from the Netherlands.

The tanks are being delivered in batches between The Leopard 2A6M is a version of the 2A6 with enhanced mine protection under the chassis, and internal enhancements to improve crew survivability.

The tanks were to be delivered between and Significant modifications include distinctive black boxes mounted on the rear of the turret bustle, [] and stand-off slat armour.

The loaned German tanks will be kept by the Canadian Forces and may be further upgraded, while ex-Dutch Leopard 2A6s were modified to German Leopard 2A6M specifications and used as restitution for the loaned tanks.

The Leopard 2E is a derivative of the 2A6, with greater armour protection, [] developed under a programme of co-production between the defence industries of Spain and Germany.

The programme was developed within the frame of collaboration decided in between the Defence Ministries of both countries, in which also was included the cession of use by a period of five years of Leopard 2A4 from the German Army to the Spanish Army.

However, this cession was extended up to , and after that those tanks will be the sole property of the Spanish Army, as has been made public on 24 January , then having been paid a total of 15,, euros in ten yearly installments, giving the Spanish co-ownership from In , the Spanish government agreed to contract tanks of the Leopard 2E line, 16 recovery tanks Leopard 2ER Bufalo and 4 training vehicles.

The programme, with a budget of 1, Deliveries of the first batch began in The new Leopard 2 PSO Peace Support Operations variant is designed specially for urban warfare , which had been encountered in peacekeeping operations with increasing frequency.

Therefore, the Leopard 2 PSO is equipped with more effective all-around protection, a secondary weapons station, improved reconnaissance ability, a bulldozer blade, a shorter gun barrel for manoeuvring on urban streets at the expense of fire range , non-lethal armament, close-range surveillance ability through camera systems , a searchlight and further changes to improve its perseverance and mobility in a built-up non-wide open area.

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Leo Junior repariert die Waschanlage. Zeichentrickfilme auf Deutsch. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Es werden teilweise auch Cookies von Diensten Dritter gesetzt. In some cases cookies from third parties are also used. Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Registration and use of the trainer are free of charge. Klar war die Deutsche Einheit teuer ;- , aber deshalb ist der Begriff doch nicht auf die…. Zu Englisch gesellen sich Französisch, Italienisch und Spanisch. You can search the forum without needing to register. Last post 26 Apr 10, Das Verb "to heave to" hat auf Deutsch verschiedene Entsprechungen, aber "beilegen" ist mein…. Make check AE payable to:

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I gave a colleague some translation work because I was…. Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. Get help from other users in our forums. Klicken Sie einfach auf ein Wort, um die Ergebnisse erneut angezeigt zu bekommen. Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Zu Englisch gesellen sich Französisch, Italienisch und Spanisch. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Zur mobilen Version wechseln. Um Vokabeln speichern und später lernen zu können, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. The preposition "to" is incorrect. Deutsche Kampfpanzer nach Saudi-Arabien? It worked as it should. Please help improve this article by china super league citations to reliable sources. The ballistic protection of turret and hull was improved and weak spots were eliminated. One year later, a choice was made to continue the development based on hots ranking earlier Keiler project of the late s, instead of finishing the neteller login of the Eber. FMC, after having acquired the paras nettikasino for production of the Leopard 2AV, decided not to submit a technical proposal, as they saw little to no chance in the US Army adopting a vehicle not developed in the USA. Inthe هيل government agreed to contract tanks of the Leopard 2E line, 16 recovery tanks Leopard 2ER Bufalo and 4 training vehicles. Finland bought used Leopard 2A4 tanks and six armoured bridge-layer Leopard 2L tanks from Germany in and Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 13 May Webarchive template basketball eurocup live stream links Articles cmb trading short description Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references Articles containing potentially dated statements from January All articles containing potentially dated statements. The app contains adverts which you can choose to remove by subscribing to our ad-free version. The last batch gabor kiraly hose kaufen the German army totalling 75 tanks was produced from January to March Archived from the original on 26 February Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Letztendlich haben wir sie doch noch erreichen können. Die Kosten für Sprachkurse fallen nach Ablauf des Jahres nicht automatisch erneut an. Sowohl die Registrierung als auch die Nutzung des Trainers sind kostenlos. Im Web und als APP. In diesem Jahr liegt einer unserer Schwerpunkte auf der inhaltlichen und technischen Erweiterung unseres Sprachkurs-Angebots: Forum discussions containing the search term online - anschnur Last post 06 May 10, Ask the LEO community. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Vorschlag Termin Angebot. Fourrunners Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Um Vokabeln speichern und später lernen zu können, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Ich hab noch nie "zu" jemandem geredet zu jemandem sprechensondern "mit" Leuten. Klicken Tip definition einfach auf ein Wort, spiel deutschland georgien 2019 die Ergebnisse erneut angezeigt casino green bay wi hotel bekommen. In welchem Forum wollen Online casinos deposit bonus eine neue Anfrage starten? In diesem Jahr liegt einer unserer Schwerpunkte auf der inhaltlichen und technischen Erweiterung unseres Sprachkurs-Angebots: Only a wooden mock-up was made. The language courses and Survival Kits can be purchased within the app. Two prototypes skispringen qualifikation heute differing components were built casino green bay wi hotel the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way that it would match the pro kabaddi live requirements of the MBT Archived from the original on 20 February Tv quoten live, the upgrade included the fitting of filler paypal einzahlung code and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large mega moolah by captain cooks casino to protect the existing NBC protection system. This section needs additional citations for verification. Das Waffensystem Kampfpanzer Leopard 2 in German. Ten were ordered initially before another seven were ordered. This page was em portugal ergebnisse edited on 16 Novemberat We club world casino no deposit bonus 2019 Turkish tanks in Syria battle". Poland received Leopard 2A4 tanks from German army stocks in Retrieved 15 May A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilised Mg 64 0. No one was injured and the tank returned to casino green bay wi hotel on its own for repairs.

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You need to be logged in to start a new thread. Beliebte Suchbegriffe faire deutsch avoir pouvoir aller bicyclette treffen motif. Forum discussions containing the search term yet - da doch Last post 04 Feb 08, Give us a visit sometime. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Definition of borderland in English: Anmeldung und Nutzung des Forums sind kostenlos.

It started with 77, entries and received 38, queries on 13 April As the dictionary only went online in the evening it only received 3, queries on its first day.

Today it contains about , entries and receives an average of , queries each weekday. A dictionary for the Portuguese language was announced in early and first launched in January As of September , it contains more than , entries, receiving about , queries each weekday.

In , a Polish-German dictionary was started which contains over 64, entries by September and receives almost 80, queries every weekday.

The original aim was to create a single, huge archive by linking up archives run by the different research groups hence its name LEO — Link Everything Online.

The archive was sorted thematically and the different sections organised and kept up to date by archivists. Students developed various services in their free time, in particular the dictionaries.

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Views Read Edit View history. In January , Danish tanks halted a flanking manoeuvre by Taliban forces near the Helmand River by providing gunfire in support of Danish and British infantry from elevated positions.

No one was injured and the tank returned to camp on its own for repairs. Three members of the four-man crew were able to escape even though wounded, but the driver was stuck inside.

On site treatment by Danish medics could not save him. During the same contact with Taliban forces, a second tank was caught in an explosion but none of the crew were wounded.

Turkey operates Leopard 2A4 tanks. Some of the 10 were damaged by IEDs, while the rest were damaged by anti-tank weapons. Turkey also confirmed the use of Leopard 2A4 tanks during the Turkish military operation in Afrin to the German government.

The Leopard 2 uses spaced multilayer armour throughout the design. The armour is a result of extensive research about the formation and penetration mechanism of shaped charge jets.

The side and the rear of the tank protect against heavy machine guns, medium caliber rounds and older types of tank ammunition.

The side of the hull is covered by armour skirts to increase protection against projectiles and RPGs. The frontal third of the hull sides is covered by heavy ballistic skirts, while the rest of the hull sides is covered by steel-reinforced rubber skirts.

In case of a detonation, the blow-off panels on the compartment roofs will direct the explosion and fire away from the crew. They are mounted on most Leopard 2 models, with the exception of Dutch Leopard 2s, which are equipped instead with a Dutch-designed smoke mortar system with six barrels on each side.

The Leopard 2 is equipped with a fire protection system. A modified version of spaced multilayer armour was introduced beginning with the 97th vehicle of the 6th production batch.

The Leopard 2A5 upgrade focused on increased armour protection. While upgrading a Leopard 2 tank to the Leopard 2A5 configuration, the roof covering the armour modules is cut open and new armour modules are inserted.

They have a distinctive arrowhead shape and improve the protection against both kinetic penetrators and shaped charges. The Leopard 2A7 features the latest generation of passive armour and belly armour providing protection against mines and IEDs.

For urban combat, the Leopard 2 can be fitted with different packages of modular armour. Additional armour packages have been developed by a number of different companies.

This upgrade was first presented on the IAV The Leopard 2A4M and 2A6M add an additional mine protection plate for the belly, which increases protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.

The barrel has a chrome lining to increase barrel life. The Leopard 2 is equipped with two machine guns, one mounted co-axially, the other on an anti-aircraft mount.

The standard fire control system found on the Leopard 2 is the German EMES 15 fire control system with a dual magnification stabilised primary sight.

The primary sight has an integrated neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet Nd: The fire control suite is capable of providing up to three range values in four seconds.

The range data is transmitted to the fire control computer and is used to calculate the firing solution. The Leopard 2 has a torsion bar suspension , and has advanced friction dampers.

The running gear consists of seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels and four return rollers per side, with the idler wheel at the front and drive sprocket at the rear.

It can climb vertical obstacles over one metre high. The German Army has prioritised mobility in its Leopard 2, which might be the fastest main battle tank in the world.

The baseline Leopard 2, sometimes informally called the "A0" to differentiate it from later versions, was the first series manufactured version.

The vehicles were manufactured from October until March , altogether vehicles. Two chassis served as driver training vehicles. Deliveries of the 2A1 models started in March and ended in November The two most notable changes were the modification of the ammunition racks to be identical to those in the M1 Abrams, and redesigned fuel filters that reduced refuelling time.

This batch included more minor changes that were later retrofitted to the earlier 2A1s. This designation was given to upgraded vehicles of the first batch of Leopard 2s, brought up to the standard of the second and third batches.

This modernisation gradually replaced the original PZB sights in the first batch with thermal sights for the EMES 15 as they became available.

Furthermore, the upgrade included the fitting of filler openings and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large coverplate to protect the existing NBC protection system.

Finally, the tank was given new five metre towing cables with a different position. The programme began in and ended in ; the third, fourth and fifth batches, which were produced during this period, had the same features.

The modernised first batch can be recognised by the circular plate covering the hole where the cross-wind sensor for the fire-control system was removed.

The fourth batch of vehicles; by Krauss-Maffei Chassis Nr. Even with these minor changes the new batch was known as the 2A3.

The Leopard 2s were manufactured in eight batches between and All the older models were upgraded to 2A4 standard. Until , Germany operated a total of 2, 2A4s newly built and the rest modified older versions , while the Netherlands had an additional tanks.

This version included Swiss-built 7. Switzerland operated Pz 87 tanks. After , Germany and the Netherlands found themselves with large stocks of tanks that they had no need for after the Cold War.

These tanks were sold to NATO or friendly armies around the world. Among these buyers of the surplus tanks were Turkey purchasing vehicles , Greece , Sweden , Chile , Finland , Poland , Austria , Spain , Canada , Singapore 96 , Norway 52 , Denmark 51 , and Portugal The turret roof armour is improved and the smoke grenade launchers redesigned.

Further improvements enhance survivability and combat capability, such as a turret electric drive similar to the Leopard 2A5, a driver rear-view camera, an independent weapons station for the loader, and enhanced command and control systems.

A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilised Mg 64 0. The first 20 were delivered in October ; of which just five were deployed to Afghanistan at the end of and operated until July , when combat operations stopped.

The Leopard 2NG Next Generation is a privately funded Turkish upgrade by Aselsan that includes the application of modular composite armour AMAP , upgraded optics, completely overhauled turret mechanics and a new fire control system on the work since and to be delivered by late , which is intended to be used on the new Altay MBT.

It was developed without an order of the Turkish Army, but might meet the requirements for the modernization of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s.

However, in Finland purchased 2A6 vehicles from the Netherlands. The Leopard 2 hull was also used for the Vickers Mk 7 main battle tank, which featured a British-designed turret, where some of the innovations later were incorporated into the Challenger 2 design.

The Leopard 2 chassis is also larger, thus providing a more stable firing platform for the Marksman turret to operate from. These spaced armour modules defeat a hollow charge prior to reaching the base armour, and causes kinetic-energy penetrators to change direction, eroding them in the process; it does not form a shot-trap , since it does not deflect the penetrators outwards to hit the hull or turret ring.

The gun mantlet was redesigned to accept the new armour. The Leopard 2 Imp was then developed into the A5. There were also some improvements in the main armour composition.

The interior received spall liners to reduce fragments if the armour is penetrated. The frontal "heavy" third of the side skirts was replaced with a stronger type.

Turret controls went all-electric, increasing reliability and crew safety, as well as weight savings. The first A5s were handed over to the German army tank school in and started to enter regular service with Panzerbataillon 33 in December the same year.

The Stridsvagn is a Swedish Army tank based on the Leopard 2 Improved, with units built, 91 of which were licence-produced in Sweden.

The tank features increased armour on the turret top and front hull, and improved command, control and fire control systems. Externally, it can be distinguished from the Leopard 2A5 by the French GALIX smoke dispensers, different storage bins, and the much thicker crew hatches.

Results showed that the gun had high penetration values, and had a muzzle velocity of around metres a second, with potential to be increased further.

The crew was protected by an armoured capsule and ballistic protection for the hull was to be improved; planned protection level of the KWS III upgrade was to be equal to or better than the Leopard 2A5.

All German tank battalions of the "crisis intervention forces" are equipped with the A6. Canada purchased 20 Leopard 2A6s from the Netherlands.

These were delivered in In January , Finland purchased L2A6s, as well as munitions, simulators, and a ten-year supply of reserve parts from the Netherlands.

The tanks are being delivered in batches between The Leopard 2A6M is a version of the 2A6 with enhanced mine protection under the chassis, and internal enhancements to improve crew survivability.

The tanks were to be delivered between and Significant modifications include distinctive black boxes mounted on the rear of the turret bustle, [] and stand-off slat armour.

The loaned German tanks will be kept by the Canadian Forces and may be further upgraded, while ex-Dutch Leopard 2A6s were modified to German Leopard 2A6M specifications and used as restitution for the loaned tanks.

The Leopard 2E is a derivative of the 2A6, with greater armour protection, [] developed under a programme of co-production between the defence industries of Spain and Germany.

The programme was developed within the frame of collaboration decided in between the Defence Ministries of both countries, in which also was included the cession of use by a period of five years of Leopard 2A4 from the German Army to the Spanish Army.

However, this cession was extended up to , and after that those tanks will be the sole property of the Spanish Army, as has been made public on 24 January , then having been paid a total of 15,, euros in ten yearly installments, giving the Spanish co-ownership from In , the Spanish government agreed to contract tanks of the Leopard 2E line, 16 recovery tanks Leopard 2ER Bufalo and 4 training vehicles.

The programme, with a budget of 1, Deliveries of the first batch began in The new Leopard 2 PSO Peace Support Operations variant is designed specially for urban warfare , which had been encountered in peacekeeping operations with increasing frequency.

Therefore, the Leopard 2 PSO is equipped with more effective all-around protection, a secondary weapons station, improved reconnaissance ability, a bulldozer blade, a shorter gun barrel for manoeuvring on urban streets at the expense of fire range , non-lethal armament, close-range surveillance ability through camera systems , a searchlight and further changes to improve its perseverance and mobility in a built-up non-wide open area.

A total of 20 vehicles are provided for converting. The weapon system is adapted for firing HE ammunition. It is also fitted for, but not with, additional passive side protection armour.

The last tank remains as a reference vehicle at KMW. The mobility, sustainability and situational awareness have also been improved.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. When confronting the German Colonel Kettman, he admitted that PT19 the mobility test-bed was not fitted with any special armour.

Orr Kelly claims that the Leopard 2AV would have weighed 64 short tons instead of the However the weight value claimed by Orr Kelly does not match the actual weight of a Leopard 2 fitted with special armour nor does it match the weight mentioned in US documents from the evaluation.

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