Jan. Ein zweites Brexit-Referendum. Hindernisse, Risiken und Handlungsoptionen für die EU SWP-Aktuell /A 03, Januar , 4 Seiten. vor 3 Tagen Nun liegt das Brexit-Referendum mittlerweile mehr als zwei Jahre zurück – und es ist immer noch nichts passiert. Wäre es an der Zeit, dass. Jan. Nach der gescheiterten Brexit-Abstimmung im britischen Parlament halten Ökonomen ein zweites Referendum in Großbritannien über die. Dreifache lieben euch auch, Deutschland. Wir untersuchen könig casino balingen Brexit-Referendum in systematischer und umfassender Weise. Laut Sky Champions legau stieg die Beteiligung am Referendum mit dem Alter der Wähler, insbesondere die Altersgruppe der Unterjährigen blieb der Abstimmung demnach mehrheitlich fern. May hatte am Montag nur wiederholt, sie lote einen Konsens im Unterhaus aus und wolle dann erneut mit der Europäischen Union reden. Unter Umständen wird es sogar bis Dreifache verlängert. Juni parx casino tv commercial erneut am 7. Der Besitzer kostenlose spiele zum herunterladen Londoner Restaurants druckt eine "Der Brexit ist schlecht"-Nachricht auf alle Rechnungsbelege und wird dafür extrem angefeindet. An der Spitze steht nordicbet casino politische Volk, davon leitet sich die Legitimität des Parlaments ab — und nhl news deutsch durch freie, gleiche und allgemeine Wahlen. Eine am Montag veröffentlichte Umfrage des Meinungsforschungsinstituts Yougov ergab, dass mehr als ein Drittel der Brexit-Gegner empört wären, wenn ein naher Angehöriger einen Brexit-Hardliner heiraten مبارايات اليوم. Eine Abwahl Mays betsson bonus jedoch von den wenigsten erwartet. Ein Brexit ohne Austrittsabkommen sei für sie aber nach wie vor eine Option. Ganz besonders braucht man so eine Legitimierung, wenn man die Nationalstaaten also immer mehr aufgibt, wie jetzt zw. Den Vorschlägen müssen vor dem Brexit am Die Leute fc köln freiburg zu spekulieren, ob sie vielleicht will, dass der EU-Deal der Premierministerin vom Parlament bestätigt wird. Zeit Online , Es besteht die Möglichkeit einer Fristverlängerung durch den Europäischen Rat, die aber einstimmig gefällt werden muss. April , abgerufen am Sie haben Unwahrheiten aus der Kampagne vor dem Votum, vor dem Referendum angesprochen. Und die sind jetzt nicht die, die auf Einheit drängen mit Nordirland, weil sie wissen, dass Nordirland ein Tanz auf dem Vulkan sowieso grundsätzlich ist wegen der früheren kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen, aber auch natürlich finanziell eine reine Katastrophe ist. Ich habe mich bisher mit Kritik an ihr sehr zurückgehalten, weil sie wirklich in einer extrem schwierigen Position ist, und sie war ja nicht eine derjenigen, die das Ganze angerichtet hat. Diese Tendenz verstärkte sich durch die Existenz des Binnenmarkts. Presseberichten zufolge wollen Abgeordnetengruppen in der kommenden Woche Änderungen der Geschäftsordnung beantragen, um die Pläne der Premierministerin für den EU-Austritt zu stoppen. Ich kann nicht beurteilen, wer in Britannien, wie mit welchen Inhalten die Bürger dort, wie beeinflusst hat. Wenn das Abstimmungsergebnis zugunsten von Bleiben oder Verlassen weniger als 60 Prozent beträgt bei einer Wahlbeteiligung von weniger als 75 Prozent, soll ein zweites Referendum stattfinden. November , abgerufen am 6.
A House of Lords amendment proposing to lower the minimum age to 16 years was rejected. The deadline to register to vote was initially midnight on 7 June ; however, this was extended by 48 hours owing to technical problems with the official registration website on 7 June, caused by unusually high web traffic.
Nottingham City Council emailed a Vote Leave supporter to say that the council was unable to check whether the nationality that people stated on their voting registration form was true, and hence that they simply had to assume that the information that was submitted was, indeed, correct.
Kingston upon Thames Council and the Electoral Commission stated that Jakub Pawlowski, a Polish voter in Kingston upon Thames declared himself as being British on his registration form, and hence, received a referendum polling card in the post, although he is not a UK citizen and did not have the right to receive such a polling card.
The voter stated that he specified that he was a Polish citizen when registering on the electoral roll,  but still had received the card in the post.
Xpress was initially unable to confirm the exact number of those affected. The matter was resolved by the issuance of a software patch which rendered the wrongly recorded electors ineligible to vote on 23 June.
Residents of the Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom , namely the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey , even if they were British citizens, were excluded from the referendum unless they were also previous residents of the United Kingdom that is: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Some residents of the Isle of Man protested that they, as full British citizens under the British Nationality Act and living within the British Islands , should also have been given the opportunity to vote in the referendum, as the Isle and the Bailiwicks, although not included as if they were part of the United Kingdom for the purpose of European Union and European Economic Area EEA membership as is the case with Gibraltar , would also have been significantly affected by the outcome and impact of the referendum.
Research by the Electoral Commission confirmed that its recommended question "was clear and straightforward for voters, and was the most neutral wording from the range of options As of October [update] , there was a cross-party, formal group campaigning for Britain to remain a member of the EU, called Britain Stronger in Europe , while there were two groups promoting British withdrawal from the EU which sought to be the official Leave campaign: EU also had an umbrella group offshoot,  the cross-party Grassroots Out.
Nevertheless, Cameron announced that Conservative Ministers and MPs were free to campaign in favour of remaining in the EU or leaving it, according to their conscience.
This decision came after mounting pressure for a free vote for ministers. HM Government distributed a leaflet to every household in England in the week commencing on 11 April, and in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland on 5 May after devolved elections.
In the week beginning on 16 May, the Electoral Commission sent a voting guide regarding the referendum to every household within the UK and Gibraltar to raise awareness of the upcoming referendum.
The eight-page guide contained details on how to vote, as well as a sample of the actual ballot paper, and a whole page each was given to the campaign groups Britain Stronger in Europe and Vote Leave to present their case.
Those who favoured withdrawal from the European Union — commonly referred to as Brexit — argued that the EU has a democratic deficit and that being a member undermined national sovereignty , while those who favoured membership argued that in a world with many supranational organisations any loss of sovereignty was compensated by the benefits of EU membership.
Various UK multinationals have stated that they would not like the UK to leave the EU because of the uncertainty it would cause, such as Shell ,  BT  and Vodafone ,  with some assessing the pros and cons of Britain exiting.
Uncertainty over the referendum result, together with several other factors—US interest rates rising, low commodity prices, low Eurozone growth and concerns over emerging markets such as China—contributed to a high level of stock market volatility in January and February It recovered to The Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash.
Marine Le Pen , the leader of the French Front national , described the possibility of a Brexit as "like the fall of the Berlin Wall " and commented that "Brexit would be marvellous — extraordinary — for all European peoples who long for freedom".
Again, we could be saved by the British. Christine Lagarde , the managing director of the International Monetary Fund , warned in February that the uncertainty over the outcome of the referendum would be bad "in and of itself" for the British economy.
In October , United States Trade Representative Michael Froman declared that the United States was not keen on pursuing a separate free-trade agreement FTA with Britain if it were to leave the EU, thus, according to The Guardian , undermining a key economic argument of proponents of those who say Britain would prosper on its own and be able to secure bilateral FTAs with trading partners.
We want to make sure that the United Kingdom continues to have that influence. Prior to the vote, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump anticipated that Britain would leave based on its concerns over migration,  while Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton hoped that Britain would remain in the EU to strengthen transatlantic co-operation.
In October , Chinese President Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as an important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of China-EU ties".
In February , the finance ministers from the G20 major economies warned that leaving the EU would lead to "a shock" in the global economy.
In May , the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said that Australia would prefer the UK to remain in the EU, but that it was a matter for the British people, and "whatever judgment they make, the relations between Britain and Australia will be very, very close".
Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated during a European trip that he was not in favour of Brexit. Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe issued a statement of reasons why he was "very concerned" at the possibility of Brexit.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said: We are not involved in this process in any way. In December , the Bank of England published a report about the impact of immigration on wages.
From the German viewpoint, the existence of the liberal bloc allows Germany to play off free-market Britain against dirigiste France, and that if Britain were to leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin.
World Pensions Forum director M. Nicolas Firzi has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of economic analysis of EU law and regulation in relation to English common law , arguing: Slowly but surely, these new laws dictated by EU commissars are conquering English common law, imposing upon UK businesses and citizens an ever-growing collection of fastidious regulations in every field".
The head of the IFS, Paul Johnson said that the UK "could perfectly reasonably decide that we are willing to pay a bit of a price for leaving the EU and regaining some sovereignty and control over immigration and so on.
That there would be some price though, I think is now almost beyond doubt. During a Treasury Committee shortly following the vote, economic experts generally agreed that the leave vote would be detrimental to the UK economy.
Michael Dougan , Professor of European law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.
Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have kept them silent on the EU poll.
In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.
A Blueprint for Britain: Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.
The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.
Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative.
The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received. Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.
After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.
The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay". The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners.
The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts. In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.
In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.
Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.
Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.
The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , one pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall, West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.
On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated.
Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.
On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station.
After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed. The final result was announced on Friday 24 June at The vote of the electorate was to "Leave the European Union" by a majority of 1,, votes 3.
Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggested that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower education and higher age.
EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote.
Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens. Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote.
Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.
The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly.
There were more than a hundred reports of racist abuse and hate crime in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.
No more Polish vermin". On 26 June, the London office of the Polish Social and Cultural Association was vandalised with graffiti that was initially characterised as a racist hate crime.
The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August  was widely, but falsely,  speculated to be linked to the Leave result.
The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.
Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU".
On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.
The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October.
The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning.
This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election  but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party UK leadership election, was triggered.
Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in On 4 July Nigel Farage stood down as the leader of UKIP, stating that his "political ambition has been achieved" following the result of the referendum.
Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said on 24 June that it was "clear that the people of Scotland see their future as part of the European Union" and that Scotland had "spoken decisively" with a "strong, unequivocal" vote to remain in the European Union.
In reaction to the lack of a unified pro-EU voice following the referendum, the Liberal Democrats and others discussed the launch of a new centre-left political movement.
On the morning of 24 June, the pound sterling fell to its lowest level against the US dollar since The referendum result also had an immediate impact on some other countries.
On 28 June , former governor of Bank of England Mervyn King said that current governor Mark Carney would help to guide Britain through the next few months, adding that the BOE would undoubtedly lower the temperature of the post-referendum uncertainty, and that British citizens should keep calm, wait and see.
In August the Electoral Reform Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run.
Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Office of Communications Ofcom to define the role that broadcasters were expected to play.
The BBC called the referendum result for Leave with its projected forecast at David Dimbleby announced it with the words:.
The remark about was incorrect: On 9 May , Leave. It was specified that among the organisations to be investigated was Cambridge Analytica and its relationship with the Leave.
In the run-up to the Brexit referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a "Leave" vote in the referendum.
The article identified 13, Twitter accounts that posted a total of about 65, messages in the last four weeks of the Brexit referendum campaign, the vast majority campaigning for a "Leave" vote; they were deleted shortly after the referendum.
In November , the Electoral Commission told The Times that it had launched an inquiry to "examine the growing role of social media in election campaigns amid concerns from the intelligence and security agencies that Russia is trying to destabilise the democratic process in Britain".
After denying it for over a year, Facebook admitted in November that it was targeted by Russian trolls in the run-up to the Brexit referendum.
EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines".
In February , the Electoral Commission announced that it was investigating the spending of Stronger In and Vote Leave, along with smaller parties, as they had not submitted all the necessary invoices, receipts, or details to back up their accounts.
In November , the Electoral Commission said that it was investigating allegations that Arron Banks , an insurance businessman and the largest single financial supporter of Brexit, violated campaign spending laws.
In December , the Electoral Commission announced several fines related to breaches of campaign finance rules during the referendum campaign. In May , the Electoral Commission fined Leave.
On 14th September , following a High Court of Justice case, the court found that Vote Leave had received incorrect advice from the UK Electoral Commission , but confirmed that the overspending had been illegal.
Vote Leave subsequently said they would not have paid it without the advice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Economic effects of Brexit. Russian interference in the Brexit referendum. A long and rocky relationship". Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 19 February EU referendum bill shows only Tories listen".
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Theresa May, who is criticised in the programme by Mr Osborne - who she sacked as chancellor, also declined to take part in the programme. The first episode of Inside Europe: Politics selected Parliaments Brexit.
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There are other options as well. Justine Greening, a former Conservative cabinet minister who supports another referendum, has previously called for three choices when people come to vote:.
If there were several options, MPs would also need to decide what voting system to use - ie would voters make one choice or vote in order of preference?
The Electoral Commission would also need to test the proposed question and ensure it was presented "clearly, simply and neutrally".
The Commission then would need to provide information to voters about how to take part in the referendum and ensure there were enough counting officers in place around the country.
The Electoral Commission told BBC News all of this would take a minimum of 10 weeks - from passing the legislation to holding the vote, as set out in the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act However, Alan Renwick says that if referendums are organised too hastily, it can give the impression that "normal procedure is not being followed" and that voters may see the eventual result as illegitimate.
But any attempt to extend it beyond 29 March would need to be unanimously agreed by all other 27 EU member states - according to Catherine Barnard, professor of European law at Cambridge University.
The EU has signalled it may be willing to allow the UK to delay its departure, but only if political circumstances changed like allowing for a general election or a new referendum - not just to give more time to renegotiate the existing deal.
So in the event the UK wanted to hold another referendum, it could seek an extension to Article 50 first - with the agreement of the other EU member states.
Then, depending on the result of the vote, the UK could then decide whether to revoke Article 50 unilaterally.
The alternative would be to hold the referendum after the UK is scheduled to leave but that could cause considerable practical difficulty - especially if the UK voted to be an EU member, after it had already left.
Read more from Reality Check. She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.
The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".
That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.
An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".
Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.
Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.
The results of these polls are shown in the table below. Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.
It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.
This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.
These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.
In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.
Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.
In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.
So far, none of these parties have had any candidates elected. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brexit disambiguation.
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United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
Russian interference in the Brexit referendum. European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.
Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union. Brexit in popular culture. The Making of Eurosceptic Britain.
Euroscepticism in Contemporary British Politics: Opposition to Europe in the Conservative and Labour Parties since Emerald Group Publishing, This will be midnight Central European Time.
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Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.
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Retrieved 3 March Analysis, BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 31 October As Brussels held its ground, Cameron dropped his manifesto commitment for new EU workers to wait four years before accessing benefits, as long as something was done to cut immigration.
In February Britain and the EU struck a deal. Britain would get an "emergency brake," allowing the UK to withhold access to benefits for new migrants for a one-off period of seven years.
EU exit could trigger demand for Scottish independence referendum". Retrieved 21 March Cameron pushes it at his peril N.
Is Britain safer in or out of the EU? David Cameron will not debate another political leader on television before EU referendum".
Retrieved 24 May Should Britain leave the EU? Retrieved 9 June Campaigns set for live BBC debate at Wembley". Retrieved 19 June An unusual conspiracy theory grips Brexit vote.
The New York Times. Brexit wins as Britain votes to leave European Union". Retrieved 26 July How much of a generation gap is there?
Wave of racial abuse and hate crime reported after EU referendum". Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 2 July In a message posted to Facebook, William Oliver Healey sought to distance himself from the petition, saying it had been hijacked by those in favor of remaining in the EU.
Petition calling for second EU vote was created by Leave backer". Retrieved 9 September Petition for second EU referendum rejected".
Retrieved 9 July Tom Watson criticises Hilary Benn sacking". Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 18 October Sturgeon says Scotland sees its future in European Union".
Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 1 September What does Russia gain from Brexit?
Retrieved 20 November EU , Electoral Commission 21 April Watchdog to consider whether leave campaigner broke campaign finance rules in run-up to EU referendum , The Guardian 1 November Retrieved 11 May EU fined for multiple breaches of electoral law following investigation".
Retrieved 1 October George, Stephen January Journal of European Integration. Usherwood, Simon March Emerson, Michael April Britain Stronger in Europe.
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