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Leaving and blocking are employed much more often in first-class cricket including Test matches , as there is no requirement to score runs as quickly as possible, thus allowing the batsman to choose which deliveries to play.
A leg glance is a delicate straight-batted shot played at a ball aimed slightly on the leg side, using the bat to flick the ball as it passes the batsman, and requiring some wrist work as well, deflecting towards the square leg or fine leg area.
The stroke involves deflecting the bat-face towards the leg side at the last moment, head and body moving inside the line of the ball.
This shot is played "off the toes, shins or hip". Although the opposite term off glance is not employed within cricket, the concept of angling the bat face towards the offside to deflect the ball away from the wicket for the purpose of scoring runs through the off side is a commonly used technique.
This would commonly be described instead as "running or steering the ball down to the third man". A drive is a straight-batted shot, played by swinging the bat in a vertical arc through the line of the ball , hitting the ball in front of the batsman along the ground.
Depending on the direction the ball travels, a drive can be a cover drive struck towards the cover fielding position , an off drive towards mid-off , straight drive straight past the bowler , on drive between stumps and mid-on or square drive towards point.
A drive can also be played towards midwicket, although the phrase "midwicket drive" is not in common usage. Drives can be played both off the front and the back foot, but back-foot drives are harder to force through the line of the ball.
Although most drives are deliberately struck along the ground to reduce the risk of being dismissed caught, a batsman may decide to play a lofted drive to hit the ball over the infielders and potentially even over the boundary for six.
A flick shot is a straight-batted shot played on the leg side by flicking a full-length delivery using the wrists. It is often also called the clip off the legs.
The shot is playing with the bat coming through straight as for the on drive, but the bat face is angled towards the leg side.
It can be played both off the front foot or the back foot, either off the toes or from the hips. The shot is played between the mid-on and square leg region.
Typically played along the ground, the flick can also be played by lofting the ball over the infield. The second class of cricket stroke comprises the horizontal bat shots, also known as cross bat shots: Typically, horizontal bat shots have a greater probability of failing to make contact with the ball than vertical bat shots and therefore are restricted to deliveries that are not threatening to hit the stumps, either by dint of being too wide or too short.
A cut is a cross-batted shot played at a short-pitched ball, placing it wide on the off side. A square cut is a shot hit into the off side at near to 90 degrees from the wicket towards point.
The cut shot is typically played off the back foot but is also sometimes played off the front foot against slower bowling.
The cut should be played with the face of the bat rolling over the ball to face the ground thus pushing the ball downwards. A mistimed cut with an open-faced bat with the face of the bat facing the bowler will generally lead to the ball rising in the air, giving a chance for the batsman to be caught.
Although confusingly named a drive, the square drive is actually a horizontal bat shot, with identical arm mechanics to that of the square cut.
The difference between the cut and the square drive is the height of the ball at contact: A pull is a cross-batted shot played to a ball bouncing around waist height by swinging the bat in a horizontal arc in front of the body, pulling it around to the leg side towards mid-wicket or square leg.
The term hook shot is used when the shot is played against a ball bouncing at or above chest high to the batsman, the batsman thus "hooking" the ball around behind square leg, either along the ground or in the air.
Pull and hook shots can be played off the front or back foot, with the back foot being more typical. A sweep is a cross-batted front foot shot played to a low bouncing ball, usually from a slow bowler , by kneeling on one knee, bringing the head down in line with the ball and swinging the bat around in a horizontal arc near the pitch as the ball arrives, sweeping it around to the leg side, typically towards square leg or fine leg.
A paddle sweep shot is a sweep shot in which the ball is deflected towards fine leg with a stationary or near-stationary bat extended horizontally towards the bowler, whereas the hard sweep shot is played towards square leg with the bat swung firmly in a horizontal arc.
Typically the sweep shot will be played to a legside delivery, but it is also possible for a batsman to sweep the ball to the leg side from outside off stump.
Attempting to sweep a full straight delivery on the stumps is generally not recommended because of the risk of lbw. Since a batsman is free to play any shot to any type of delivery as he wishes, the above list is by no means a complete list of the strokes that batsmen choose to play.
Many unorthodox, typically high-risk, shots have been used throughout the history of the game. The advent of limited overs cricket has seen the increased use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders placed.
A few unorthodox shots have gained enough popularity or notoriety to have been given their own names and entered common usage. A reverse sweep is a cross-batted sweep shot played in the opposite direction to the standard sweep, thus instead of sweeping the ball to the leg side, it is swept to the off side, towards a backward point or third man.
The batsman may also swap his hands on the bat handle to make the stroke easier to execute. The batsman may also bring his back foot to the front, therefore, making it more like a traditional sweep.
The advantage of a reverse sweep is that it effectively reverses the fielding positions and thus is very difficult to set a field to.
It is also a risky shot for the batsman as it increases the chance of lbw and also is quite easy to top edge to a fielder. Cricket coach Bob Woolmer has been credited with popularising the stroke.
With England on course for victory, Gatting attempted a reverse sweep off the first delivery bowled by Border, top-edged the ball and was caught by wicketkeeper Greg Dyer.
England subsequently lost momentum and eventually lost the match. Because of the unorthodox nature of hand and body position, it is often difficult to get a lot of power behind a reverse sweep; in many situations, the intention is to glance or cut the ball to the back leg area.
However, on rare occasions, players have been able to execute reverse sweeps for a six. Kevin Pietersen , who pioneered switch-hitting, is adept at this, but one could argue [ original research?
A slog is a powerful pull shot played over mid-wicket, usually, hit in the air in an attempt to score a six.
A shot would be described as a slog when it is typically played at a delivery that would not ordinarily be pulled. A slog can also be described as hitting the ball to " cow corner ".
This phrase is designed to imply that the batsman is unsophisticated in his strokeplay and technique by suggesting he would be more at home playing on more rudimentary cricket fields in which there may be cows grazing along the boundary edge.
A slog sweep is a slog played from the kneeling position used to sweep. Slog sweeps are usually directed over square-leg rather than to mid-wicket.
It is almost exclusively used against reasonably full-pitched balls from slow bowlers, as only then does the batsman have time to sight the length and adopt the kneeling position required for the slog sweep.
The front leg of the shot is usually placed wider outside leg stump to allow for a full swing of the bat. A upper cut is a shot played towards third man, usually hit when the ball is pitched outside the off stump with an extra bounce.
It is a dangerous shot which can edge the batsman to keeper or slips if not executed correctly. The shot is widely used in modern cricket. The shot is advantageous in fast bouncy tracks and is seen commonly in Twenty20 cricket.
A switch hit is a shot where a batsman changes his handedness and posture to adopt a stance the mirror image of his traditional handedness while the bowler is running into a bowl.
As a fielding team cannot maneuver fielders while the bowler is in his run-up, the fielding side is effectively wrong-footed with the fielders out of position.
It was subsequently used in the New Zealand series in England in when Pietersen performed the shot twice in the same over against Scott Styris on his way to making an unbeaten century.
He is also possible to bat right-handed due to his experience in doing so in youth cricket. The legality of the switch hit was questioned when first introduced but cleared by the International Cricket Council as legal.
The shot is risky because a batsman is less proficient in the other handedness and is more likely to make a mistake in the execution of his shot.
A scoop shot also known as a ramp shot, paddle scoop , Marillier shot or Dilscoop has been used by a number of first-class batsmen, the first being Dougie Marillier.
It is played to short-pitched straight balls that would traditionally be defended or, more aggressively, pulled to the leg side. To play a scoop shot, the batsman is on the front foot and aims to get beneath the bounce of the ball and hit it directly behind the stumps, up and over the wicket-keeper.
This shot, though risky in the execution, has the advantage of being aimed at a section of the field where a fielder is rarely placed — particularly in Twenty20 and One Day International cricket where the number of outfielders is limited.
The scoop shot is a risky shot to play as the improper execution of this shot may lead to a catch being offered. The helicopter shot in cricket is the act of flicking the bat toward the leg side when facing a yorker or a fuller-length delivery and finishing the stroke with a flourish by twisting the bat in an overhead circle.
This shot, which requires excellent timing and wrist-work, is considered a new innovation in cricket and is seen as an unconventional form of batsmanship.
Traditionally, faster bowlers have used yorker-length deliveries toward the end of limited-overs matches because it is difficult to hit such balls to the boundary.
The helicopter shot is one answer to this tactic. But the shot was popularised by MS Dhoni. The fundamental aim of each batsman is to find a means of safely scoring runs against each bowler he faces.
The strategy he will decide on will incorporate a number of preconceived attacking responses to the various deliveries he may anticipate receiving, designed specifically to score runs with minimal risk of being dismissed.
The success of this strategy will be dependent upon both the accuracy of its conception and the technical ability with which it is carried out. A key aspect of the strategy of batting is the trade-off between the level of aggression trying to score and the risk involved of being dismissed.
An optimal batting strategy balances several considerations: As such, strategies vary between the three forms of international cricket, T20 , Test cricket and One Day International cricket.
As One Day International matches have a limited set of overs , batsmen try to score quickly. Doing so, batsmen should aim for a higher run rate than the one which would maximize their expected personal score.
It is optimal for batsmen to take the risk of being dismissed and being replaced by another teammate. This higher risk strategy makes the best of the limited number of overs.
Most batsmen manage to score at an average of four runs an over i. The optimal level of risk should vary depending on different factors.
It should be higher when the pitch provides good conditions for batting, making it easier to score without great risk of being dismissed.
It should increase towards the end of the innings when the number of overs left is small there is not much to lose in taking the risk of ending all out.
Research has shown that teams broadly follow these principles. A noticeable exception is when batsmen face the possibility to score a personal milestone e.
When a team goes out to bat, the best players bat first. The first three batsmen number 1, 2, 3 are known as the top order ; the next four numbers 4, 5, 6 and possibly 7 form the middle order , and the last four numbers 8, 9, 10 and 11 are the lower order or tail.
The specialist batsmen of a team usually bat near the top of the order, so as to score more runs. The openers or opening batsmen are the first two batsmen to take the crease.
They are not necessarily the best batsmen, but are expected to negotiate the new ball and not lose wickets until the shine on the ball is considerably diminished a hard and shiny ball bounces and swings more and is more difficult for the batsmen to face.
In , the American League adopted the designated hitter rule—rejected to this day by the National League. Also controversial when adopted, although more generally accepted now, was the later introduction of inter-league play.
The most recent significant rule changes, banning the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing substances, have had widespread support as protecting the integrity of the game.
The use of steroids by many players over the last two decades has called into question a number of baseball records for both hitting and pitching.
Such comparisons are not possible in sports in which the rules have changed significantly over the years. The generally static nature of the rules in the modern era also allows a modern fan to easily follow an account of a game played long ago.
As a result, baseball arguably has more of a "history" than most other sports. Baseball is played between two teams with nine players in the field from the team that is not batting at that point the batting team would have one batter in play at "home plate" on the field.
On a baseball field , the game is under authority of several umpires. There are usually four umpires in major league games; up to six and as few as one may officiate depending on the league and the importance of the game.
There are three bases. The playing field is divided into three main sections:. The pitcher must have one foot on the rubber at the start of every pitch to a batter, but the pitcher may leave the mound area once the ball is released.
High school baseball plays seven innings and Little League uses six-inning games. An inning is broken up into two halves in which the away team bats in the top first half, and the home team bats in the bottom second half.
In baseball, the defense always has the ball — a fact that differentiates it from most other team sports. The teams switch every time the defending team gets three players of the batting team out.
The winner is the team with the most runs after nine innings. If the home team is ahead after the top of the ninth, play does not continue into the bottom half.
In the case of a tie, additional innings are played until one team comes out ahead at the end of an inning. If the home team takes the lead anytime during the bottom of the ninth or of any inning thereafter, play stops and the home team is declared the winner.
This is known as a walk-off. The basic contest is always between the pitcher for the fielding team, and a batter.
The pitcher throws— pitches —the ball towards home plate, where the catcher for the fielding team waits in a crouched stance to receive it.
Behind the catcher stands the home plate umpire. The catcher also usually signals the desired location of the ball within the strike zone and "sets up" behind the plate or holds his glove up in the desired location as a target.
Each pitch begins a new play , which might consist of nothing more than the pitch itself. Each half-inning, the goal of the defending team is to get three members of the other team out.
A player who is out must leave the field and wait for his next turn at bat. There are many ways to get batters and baserunners out; some of the most common are catching a batted ball in the air , tag outs , force outs , and strikeouts.
After the fielding team has put out three players from the opposing team, that half of the inning is over and the team in the field and the team at bat switch places; there is no upper limit to the number that may bat in rotation before three outs are recorded.
Going through the entire order in an inning is referred to as "batting around" and it is indicative of a high-scoring inning.
A complete inning consists of each opposing side having a turn three outs on offense. The goal of the team at bat is to score more runs than the opposition; a player may do so by batting, then becoming a baserunner , touching all the bases in order via one or more plays , and finally touching home plate.
A player may also become a baserunner by being inserted as a pinch-runner. To that end, the goal of each batter is to enable baserunners to score or to become a baserunner himself.
The batter attempts to hit the ball into fair territory — between the baselines — in such a way that the defending players cannot get them or the baserunners out.
In general, the pitcher attempts to prevent this by pitching the ball in such a way that the batter cannot hit it cleanly or, ideally, at all.
A baserunner who has successfully touched home plate without being retired called out after touching all previous bases in order scores a run.
In an enclosed field, a fair ball hit over the fence on the fly is an automatic home run , which entitles the batter and all runners to touch all the bases and score.
On a field with foul poles, a ball that hits a pole is also a home run. The squad in the field is the defensive team; they attempt to prevent the baserunners from scoring.
There are nine defensive positions, but only two have a mandatory location pitcher and catcher. The locations of the other seven fielders is not specified by the rules, except that at the moment the pitch is delivered, they must be positioned in fair territory and not in the space between the pitcher and the catcher.
These fielders often shift their positioning in response to specific batters or game situations, and they may exchange positions with one another at any time.
The nine positions most commonly used with the number scorekeepers use are: Note that, in rare cases, teams may use dramatically differing schemes, such as switching an outfielder for an infielder.
The numbering convention was established by Henry Chadwick. The reason the shortstop seems out of order has to do with the way fielders positioned themselves in the early years of the game.
Each position is weighted on the defensive spectrum in terms of difficulty. The most difficult position is catcher, while the least difficult is first base.
Designated hitter, while on the scale, is not part of the defense at all. Pitchers, while part of the active defense, are so specialized in their role that they usually make only routine plays.
The battery is composed of the pitcher , who stands on the rubber of the mound, which is also known as the pitching plate, and the catcher , who squats behind home plate.
These are the two fielders who always deal directly with the batter on every pitch, hence the term "battery", coined by Henry Chadwick and later reinforced by the implied comparison to artillery fire.
Pitchers also play defense by fielding batted balls, covering bases for a potential tag out or force out on an approaching runner , or backing up throws.
Together with the pitcher and coaches, the catcher plots game strategy by suggesting different pitches and by shifting the starting positions of the other fielders.
Catchers are also responsible for defense in the area near home plate such as dropped third strikes and wild pitches or baserunning plays, most commonly when an opposing player attempts to steal a base.
Due to the exceptional difficulty of the position, catchers are universally valued for their defensive prowess as opposed to their ability to hit.
The four infielders are the first baseman , second baseman , shortstop , and third baseman. Originally the first, second and third basemen played very near their respective bases, and the shortstop generally played "in" hence the term , covering the area between second, third, and the pitchers box, or wherever the game situation required.
When an infielder picks up a ball from the ground hit by the batter , he must throw it to the first baseman who must catch the ball and maintain contact with the base before the batter gets to it for the batter to be out.
The need to do this quickly often requires the first baseman to stretch one of his legs to touch first base while catching the ball simultaneously.
The first baseman must be able to catch the ball very well and usually wears a specially designed mitt.
The first baseman fields balls hit near first base. The first baseman also has to receive throws from the pitcher in order to tag runners out who have reached base safely.
The position is less physically challenging than the other positions, but there is still a lot of skill involved. Older players who can no longer fulfill the demands of their original positions also often become first basemen.
The second baseman covers the area to the first-base side of second base and provides backup for the first baseman in bunt situations.
He also is a cut-off for the outfield. The shortstop fills the critical gap between second and third bases — where right-handed batters generally hit ground balls — and also covers second or third base and the near part of left field.
This player is also a cut-off for the outfield. Quick reaction time is also important for third basemen, as they tend to see more sharply-hit balls than do the other infielders, thus the nickname for third base as the "hot corner".
The right fielder generally has the strongest arm of all the outfielders due to the need to make throws on runners attempting to take third base.
The center fielder has more territory to cover than the corner outfielders , so this player must be quick and agile with a strong arm to throw balls in to the infield ; as with the shortstop , teams tend to emphasize defense at this position.
Also, the center fielder is considered the outfield leader, and left- and right-fielders often cede to his direction when fielding fly balls. Of all outfielders, the left fielder often has the weakest arm, as they generally do not need to throw the ball as far in order to prevent the advance of any baserunners.
The left fielder still requires good fielding and catching skills, and tends to receive more balls than the right fielder due to the fact that right-handed hitters, who are much more common, tend to "pull" the ball into left field.
Each outfielder runs to "back up" a nearby outfielder who attempts to field a ball hit near both their positions. Outfielders also run to back up infielders on batted balls and thrown balls, including pick-off attempts from the pitcher or from the catcher.
Effective pitching is critical to a baseball team, as pitching is the key for the defensive team to retire batters and to prevent runners from getting on base.
A full game usually involves over one hundred pitches thrown by each team. However, most pitchers begin to tire before they reach this point.
In previous eras, pitchers would often throw up to four complete games all nine innings in a week. With new advances in medical research and thus a better understanding of how the human body functions and tires out, starting pitchers tend more often to throw fractions of a game typically six or seven innings, depending on their performance about every five days though a few complete games do still occur each year.
Multiple pitchers are often needed in a single game, including the starting pitcher and relief pitcher s. Pitchers are substituted for one another like any other player see above , and the rules do not limit the number of pitchers that can be used in a game; the only limiting factor is the size of the squad, naturally.
In general, starting pitchers are not used in relief situations except sometimes during the post-season when every game is vital. If a game runs into many extra innings, a team may well empty its bullpen.
If it then becomes necessary to use a "position player" as a pitcher, major league teams generally have certain players designated as emergency relief pitchers, to avoid the embarrassment of using a less skillful player.
In the ALCS , all four of the Chicago White Sox victories were complete games by the starters, a highly noteworthy event in the modern game.
While delivering the ball, the pitcher has a great arsenal at his disposal in the variation of location, velocity, movement, and arm location see types of pitches.
Most pitchers attempt to master two or three types of pitches; some pitchers throw up to 6 types of pitches with varying degrees of control.
Pitchers with a submarine delivery are often very difficult to hit because of the angle and movement of the ball once released. Walter Johnson , who threw one of the fastest fastballs in the history of the game, threw sidearm though not submarine rather than a normal overhand.
True underhanded pitching is permitted in Major League Baseball. However, it is difficult to generate enough velocity and movement with the underhand motion.
Among modern Major League pitchers, Chad Bradford had the closest to an underhand delivery, with his knuckles sometimes scraping the ground.
However, he is still usually considered a "submarine" pitcher. Thus, the players on the field move around as needed to defend against scoring a run.
Many variations of this are possible, as location depends upon the situation. Circumstances such as the number of outs, the count balls and strikes on the batter, the number and speed of runners, the ability of the fielders, the ability of the pitcher, the type of pitch thrown, the tendencies of the hitter, and the inning cause the fielders to move to more strategic locations on the field.
Common defensive strategies include: The ultimate goal of the team at bat is to score runs. Each team sets its batting lineup at the beginning of the game.
Changes to the lineup are tightly limited by the rules of baseball and must be communicated to the umpires, who have the substitutions announced for the opposing team and fans.
Batters can advance to first base safely in one of seven methods: When the batter hits a fair ball, he must run to first base, and may continue or stop at any base unless he is put out.
A successful hit occurs when the batter reaches a base: Once a runner is held to a base, he may attempt to advance at any time, but is not required to do so unless the batter or another runner displaces him called a force play.
A batter always drops his bat when running the bases; otherwise, the bat would slow him down and could give rise to a call of interference if it were to contact the ball or a fielder.
However, if a batter hits the ball, and the batter or the dropped bat touches the ball, it is considered a dead ball. Depending on the way the ball comes off the bat, the play has different names.
A batted ball is called a fly ball if it is hit in the air in an upward arc, such that a fielder might be able to catch it before it hits the ground.
A batted ball is called a ground ball if it hits the ground within the infield before it can be caught, often due to being hit in a downward trajectory.
Several different names are used to describe fly balls, depending on their trajectory. A ball hit high in the air and seemingly almost straight up is called a "pop-up".
A ball hit forcefully in a fast-moving and seemingly almost straight-line trajectory is called a line drive. A "shallow" fly ball, hit with just enough force to possibly land between the infielders and the outfielders, is often call a "blooper".
A "deep" fly ball is hit with enough force to approach and possibly clear the outfield fence. When a ball is hit outside the foul lines, it is a foul ball , requiring the batter and all runners to return to their respective bases, whether it is caught or not.
Additionally, if a ground ball or a bunted ball lands in foul territory and the ball rolls back into bounds before reaching either first or third bases without being touched by either a fielder or a runner, then said ball is considered fair.
Once the batter and any existing runners have all stopped at a base or been put out, the ball is returned to the pitcher, and the next batter comes to the plate.
When a runner reaches home plate, he scores a run and is no longer a base runner. He must leave the playing area until his spot in the order comes up again.
A runner may only circle the bases once per plate appearance and thus can score no more than a single run. In the American, Pacific, and both Cuban leagues, there is a tenth player, a designated hitter, who bats for the pitcher.
With each pitch, the batter must decide whether to swing the bat at the ball in an attempt to hit it. In addition to swinging at the ball, a batter who wishes to put the ball in play may hold his bat over home plate and attempt to tap a pitch lightly; this is called a bunt.
Good bunting technique has been described as "catching the ball with the bat. On any pitch, if the batter swings at the ball and misses, he is charged with a strike.
If the batter does not swing, the home plate umpire judges whether the ball passed through the strike zone. If the ball, or any part of it, passed through the zone, it is ruled a strike; otherwise, it is called a ball.
The number of balls and strikes thrown to the current batter is known as the count ; the count is always given balls first except in Japan, where it is reversed , then strikes such as or "three and two", also known as a "full count", which would be 3 balls and 2 strikes.
If the batter swings and makes contact with the ball, but does not put it in play in fair territory—a foul ball —he is charged with an additional strike, except when there are already two strikes.
Thus, a foul ball with two strikes leaves the count unchanged. However, a noted exception to this rule is that a ball bunted foul with two strikes is a strikeout.
If a pitch is batted foul or fair and a member of the defensive team is able to catch it, before the ball strikes the ground, the batter is declared out.
If a ball ruled as a foul tip is caught, with two strikes in the count, it is considered a counted third strike and an out; if not initially caught by the catcher, it remains a foul ball with two strikes.
When three strikes occur on a batter, it is a strikeout and the batter is automatically out unless the pitch is not caught by the catcher or if the pitch bounces before it is caught.
It is then ruled an uncaught third strike , an exception to the third strike rule: If the catcher drops the third strike, the batter is permitted to attempt to advance to first base if there are two outs in the inning or if it is unoccupied.
In this case, the batter is not out although the pitcher is awarded a strikeout. The catcher can try to get the batter out by tagging him with the ball or throwing the ball to first base to put him out.
On the fourth ball , it is called a walk, and the batter becomes a runner, and is entitled to advance to first base without risk of being put out, called a base on balls or a walk abbreviated BB.
In practice, neither exception is ever called unless the batter obviously tries to get hit by the pitch; even standing still in the box will virtually always be overlooked, and the batter awarded first.
In addition, if the batter swings at a pitch that hits him, it counts as a strike. Once a batter becomes a runner and reaches first base safely, he is said to be "on" that base until he attempts to advance to the next base, until he is put out, or until the half-inning ends.
In order to be safe a runner must beat the ball to the bag. When two or more runners are on the basepaths, the runner farther along is called a lead runner or a preceding runner ; any other runner is called a trailing runner or a following runner.
Runners on second or third base are considered to be in scoring position since ordinary hits, even singles, will often allow them to score.
A runner legally touching a base is " safe " — in most situations he may not be put out. Runners may attempt to advance from base to base at any time except when the ball is dead.
A runner that must attempt to advance is forced , when all previous bases are occupied and a batted ball that touches the ground is a fair ball.
The runner forced to advance toward the next base is considered "forced out" if a fielder holding the baseball touches the intended base before the baserunner arrives.
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